On this date in history:
In 1804, the French Senate declared Napoleon Bonaparte emperor.
In 1871, U.S. Marines landed in Korea in an attempt to open the country to foreign trade.
In 1920, Joan of Arc was canonized as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1929, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences had its first Academy Awards ceremony. Wings was named Best Picture in the event at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
In 1932, following the assassination of Premier Inukai Tsuyoshi, fears began to spread that a militarist “super-party” was beginning to take shape in Japan.
In 1969, the unmanned Soviet spacecraft Venera 5 landed on Venus.
In 1985, the NBA named the Chicago Bulls’ Michael Jordan rookie of the year after he led all players in points.
In 1988, U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop said nicotine was as addictive as heroin or cocaine and called for the licensing of tobacco product vendors.
In 1991, Queen Elizabeth II became the first British monarch to address a joint session of Congress.
In 1995, the leader of a Japanese religious cult was charged with murder and attempted murder in nerve-gas attacks in a Tokyo subway that killed 12 people and injured more than 5,000.
In 1997, Mobutu Sese Seko — who ruled Zaire for more than 30 years, allegedly looting it of billions of dollars — fled the capital as rebel forces advanced. He died in exile less than four months later.
In 2006, Italian President Giorgio Napolitano appointed Romano Prodi premier amid charges of election fraud from outgoing Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.
In 2012, Vermont became the first state to ban hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to extract gas from underground deposits.
In 2013, Britain’s David Beckham announced he would retire from soccer.
In 2014, election results in India gave Narenda Modi and his opposition Bharatiya Janata Party a major victory elevating him to prime minister.